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Fb2 Aspects of the Theory of Syntax ePub

by Noam Chomsky

Category: Words Language and Grammar
Subcategory: Reference
Author: Noam Chomsky
ISBN: 0262530074
ISBN13: 978-0262530071
Language: English
Publisher: M.I.T. Press (1969)
Pages: 251
Fb2 eBook: 1399 kb
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Aspects of the Theory of Syntax (known in linguistic circles simply as Aspects) is a book on linguistics written by American linguist Noam Chomsky, first published in 1965.

Aspects of the Theory of Syntax (known in linguistic circles simply as Aspects) is a book on linguistics written by American linguist Noam Chomsky, first published in 1965. In Aspects, Chomsky presented a deeper, more extensive reformulation of transformational generative grammar (TGG), a new kind of syntactic theory that he had introduced in the 1950s with the publication of his first book, Syntactic Structures.

Aspects of the theory of syntax. The writing of this book was completed while I was at Harvard University, Center for Cognitive Studies, supported in part by Grant No. Massachusetts Institute of Technology Cambridge, ~assachusetts. MH 05120-04 and -05 from the National Institutes of Health to Harvard University, and in part by a fellowship of the American Council of Learned Societies. NOAMCHOMSICY Cambridge, Massachusetts October 1964.

He is Professor Emeritus of Linguistics at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology

He is Professor Emeritus of Linguistics at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

Syntax - Noam Chomsky (1965) - Free ebook download as PDF File . df), Text File . xt) or read book online for free.

Aspects of the Theory of Syntax - Noam Chomsky (1965) - Free ebook download as PDF File .

Noam Chomsky is Institute Professor and Professor of Linguistics (Emeritus) at MIT and the author of many influential books on linguistics, including Aspects of the Theory of Syntax and The Minimalist Program, both published by the MIT Press.

NOAM CHOMSKY Cambridge, Massachusetts October Ig64. ASPECTS OF THE THEORY OF SYNTAX Noam Chomsky. The writing of this book was completed while I was at Harvard University, Center for Cognitive Studies. supported in part by Grant No. MH 05120-04 and -05 from the National Institutes of Health to Harvard University. and in part by a fellowship of the American Council of Learned Societies. NOAM CHOMSKY Cambridge, Massachusetts October Ig64. Step by step: Essays on minimalist syntax in honor of Howard Lasnik, 89-155, 2000. The minimalist program. Lectures on government and binding: The Pisa lectures. Walter de Gruyter, 1993. Bibliografische Informationen. Aspects of the Theory of Syntax The MIT Press.

CHOMSKY S THEORY OF SYNTAX 67 is the necessity of some sort of generally defined semantical apparatus. General (formal) semantics does supply such an apparatus, and linguisticians are welcome to appropriate if they feel inclined. Now what carries most of the burden of 'means' in Katz's system is 'semantic marker'.

Start by marking Aspects of the Theory of Syntax as Want to Read . Avram Noam Chomsky is an American linguist, philosopher, political activist, author, and lecturer

Start by marking Aspects of the Theory of Syntax as Want to Read: Want to Read savin. ant to Read. Avram Noam Chomsky is an American linguist, philosopher, political activist, author, and lecturer. He is an Institute Professor and professor emeritus of linguistics at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

Beginning in the mid-fifties and emanating largely form MIT, an approach was developed to linguistic theory and to the study of the structure of particular languages that diverges in many respects from modern linguistics. Although this approach is connected to the traditional study of languages, it differs enough in its specific conclusions about the structure and in its specific conclusions about the structure of language to warrant a name, "generative grammar." Various deficiencies have been discovered in the first attempts to formulate a theory of transformational generative grammar and in the descriptive analysis of particular languages that motivated these formulations. At the same time, it has become apparent that these formulations can be extended and deepened.The major purpose of this book is to review these developments and to propose a reformulation of the theory of transformational generative grammar that takes them into account. The emphasis in this study is syntax; semantic and phonological aspects of the language structure are discussed only insofar as they bear on syntactic theory.

Comments to eBook Aspects of the Theory of Syntax
Nalmetus
One of the most important works of Chomsky's. It is preceded by experimental modelling of linguistic knowledge based on rewriting rules and the resulting conclusion of the need for transformations and is followed by new innovating ideas on restricting the power of transformations. We already see the deep thinking that went into the development of the next stage. He discusses the idea of 'singulary transformations' which the individual transformations were, then, composed of and which later developed into Move-alpha, Delete-alpha, etc. He argues very persuasively for a separate 'lexicon' and the kind of information we should expect to find there. Overall, it is rich with seeds that later developed into the ideas comprising the 'principles and parameters' theory. And most importantly, it gives the shrewd and disciplined argumentation, which became a standard of Chomsky's later works and generative grammar in general.
I am hcv men
This text has substance and there is a lot of content to digest.
The owner(s) have taken excellent care of this book for the last 50 years.
The book is in near perfect condition.
[1965 second printing by "The MIT Press"]
Shadowredeemer
Avram Noam Chomsky (b. 1928) is an American linguist, philosopher, cognitive scientist, logician, political commentator, and outspoken social activist. He is Professor Emeritus of Linguistics at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. He has written many books, such as Language & Thought,Problems of Knowledge and Freedom,Manufacturing Consent: The Political Economy of the Mass Media,Media Control, etc.

He wrote in the Preface to this 1965 book, “The idea that a language is based on a system of rules determining the interpretation of its infinitely many sentences is by no means novel… Nevertheless, within modern linguistics, it is chiefly within the last few years that fairly substantial attempts have been made to construct explicit generative grammars for particular languages and to explore their consequences… In particular, the central role of grammatical transformations in any empirically questions as to the proper form of the theory of transformational grammar. This monograph is an exploratory study of various problems that have arisen in the course of work on transformational grammar, which is presupposed throughout as a general framework for the discussion. What is at issue here is precisely how the theory should be formulated. This study deals, then, with questions that are at the border of research in transformational grammar.”

In the first chapter, he says, “in the technical sense, linguistic theory is mentalistic, since it is concerned with discovering a mental reality underlying actual behavior. Observed use of language or hypothesized dispositions to respond, habits, and so on, may provide evidence as to the nature of this mental reality, but sure cannot constitute the actual subject matter of linguistics, if this is to be a serious discipline.” (Pg. 4)

He states, “The existence of deep-seated formal universals, in the sense suggested by such examples as these, implies that all languages are cut to the same pattern, but does not imply that there is any point by point correspondence between particular languages. It does not, for example, imply that there must be some reasonable procedure for translating between languages.” (Pg. 30)

He points out, “The child who acquires a language in this way of course knows a great deal more than he has ‘learned.’ His knowledge of the language, as this is determined by his internalized grammar, goes far beyond the presented primary linguistic data and is in no sense an ‘inductive generalization’ from these data.” (Pg. 32-33)

He acknowledges, “it is clear that no present-day theory of language can hope to attain explanatory adequacy beyond very restricted domains. In other words, we are very far from being able to present a system of formal and substantive linguistic universals that will be sufficiently rich and detailed to account for the facts of language learning.” (Pg. 46)

He summarizes, “it seems clear that the present situation with regard to the study of language is essentially as follows. We have a certain amount of evidence about the character of the generative grammars that must be the ‘output’ of an acquisition model for language. This evidence clearly shows that taxonomic views of linguistic structure are inadequate and that knowledge of grammatical structure cannot arise by application of step-by-step inductive operations… of any sort that have yet been developed within linguistics, psychology, or philosophy… It seems plain that language acquisition is based on the child’s discovery of what from a formal point of view is a deep and abstract theory---a generative grammar of his language---many of the concepts and principles of which are only remotely related to experience by long and intricate chains of unconscious quasi-inferential steps…

“It is, for the present, impossible to formulate an assumption about initial, innate structure rich enough to account for the fact that grammatical knowledge is attained on the basis of the evidence available to the learner… In short, the structure of particular languages may very well be largely determined by factors over which the individual has no real conscious control and concerning which society may have little choice or freedom… Thus it may well be that the general features of language structure reflect… the general character of one’s capacity to acquire knowledge---in the traditional sense, one’s innate ideas and innate principles.” (Pg. 57-59)

He states, “It is clear from this fragmentary and inconclusive discussion that the interrelation of semantic and syntactic rules is by no means a settled issue, and that there is quite a range of possibilities that deserve serious exploration… Evidently, further insight into these questions will await a much more intensive study of semantic interpretive rules than it has yet been possible to undertake. The work of the last few years, I believe, has laid the groundwork for empirical investigations of this sort. There is a general theoretical framework parts of which have received empirical support. Within this framework it is possible to formulate certain reasonably clear questions, and it is also fairly clear what kind of empirical evidence would be relevant to deciding them. Alternative positions can be formulated, but for the present any one that is adopted must be extremely tentative.” (Pg. 159)

He concludes, “I shall simply point out that the syntactic and semantic structure of natural languages evidently offers many mysteries, both of fact and of principle, and that any attempt to delimit the boundaries of these domains must certainly be quite tentative.” (Pg. 163) He ends the book with the statement, “the questions we have touched on here have not yet been illuminated in any serious way by approaching them within the framework of any explicit grammatical theory. For the present, one can barely go beyond mere taxonomic arrangement of data. Whether these limitations are intrinsic, or whether a deeper analysis can succeed in unraveling some of these difficulties, remains an open question.” (Pg. 192)

This is a very complex book---and Chomsky has modified some of his ideas since it was written---but one that will be “must reading” for anyone studying linguistic theory.
Olwado
Avram Noam Chomsky (b. 1928) is an American linguist, philosopher, cognitive scientist, logician, political commentator, and outspoken social activist. He is Professor Emeritus of Linguistics at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. He has written many books, such as Language & Thought,Problems of Knowledge and Freedom,Manufacturing Consent: The Political Economy of the Mass Media,Media Control, etc.

He wrote in the Preface to this 1965 book, “The idea that a language is based on a system of rules determining the interpretation of its infinitely many sentences is by no means novel… Nevertheless, within modern linguistics, it is chiefly within the last few years that fairly substantial attempts have been made to construct explicit generative grammars for particular languages and to explore their consequences… In particular, the central role of grammatical transformations in any empirically questions as to the proper form of the theory of transformational grammar. This monograph is an exploratory study of various problems that have arisen in the course of work on transformational grammar, which is presupposed throughout as a general framework for the discussion. What is at issue here is precisely how the theory should be formulated. This study deals, then, with questions that are at the border of research in transformational grammar.”

In the first chapter, he says, “in the technical sense, linguistic theory is mentalistic, since it is concerned with discovering a mental reality underlying actual behavior. Observed use of language or hypothesized dispositions to respond, habits, and so on, may provide evidence as to the nature of this mental reality, but sure cannot constitute the actual subject matter of linguistics, if this is to be a serious discipline.” (Pg. 4)

He states, “The existence of deep-seated formal universals, in the sense suggested by such examples as these, implies that all languages are cut to the same pattern, but does not imply that there is any point by point correspondence between particular languages. It does not, for example, imply that there must be some reasonable procedure for translating between languages.” (Pg. 30)

He points out, “The child who acquires a language in this way of course knows a great deal more than he has ‘learned.’ His knowledge of the language, as this is determined by his internalized grammar, goes far beyond the presented primary linguistic data and is in no sense an ‘inductive generalization’ from these data.” (Pg. 32-33)

He acknowledges, “it is clear that no present-day theory of language can hope to attain explanatory adequacy beyond very restricted domains. In other words, we are very far from being able to present a system of formal and substantive linguistic universals that will be sufficiently rich and detailed to account for the facts of language learning.” (Pg. 46)

He summarizes, “it seems clear that the present situation with regard to the study of language is essentially as follows. We have a certain amount of evidence about the character of the generative grammars that must be the ‘output’ of an acquisition model for language. This evidence clearly shows that taxonomic views of linguistic structure are inadequate and that knowledge of grammatical structure cannot arise by application of step-by-step inductive operations… of any sort that have yet been developed within linguistics, psychology, or philosophy… It seems plain that language acquisition is based on the child’s discovery of what from a formal point of view is a deep and abstract theory---a generative grammar of his language---many of the concepts and principles of which are only remotely related to experience by long and intricate chains of unconscious quasi-inferential steps…

“It is, for the present, impossible to formulate an assumption about initial, innate structure rich enough to account for the fact that grammatical knowledge is attained on the basis of the evidence available to the learner… In short, the structure of particular languages may very well be largely determined by factors over which the individual has no real conscious control and concerning which society may have little choice or freedom… Thus it may well be that the general features of language structure reflect… the general character of one’s capacity to acquire knowledge---in the traditional sense, one’s innate ideas and innate principles.” (Pg. 57-59)

He states, “It is clear from this fragmentary and inconclusive discussion that the interrelation of semantic and syntactic rules is by no means a settled issue, and that there is quite a range of possibilities that deserve serious exploration… Evidently, further insight into these questions will await a much more intensive study of semantic interpretive rules than it has yet been possible to undertake. The work of the last few years, I believe, has laid the groundwork for empirical investigations of this sort. There is a general theoretical framework parts of which have received empirical support. Within this framework it is possible to formulate certain reasonably clear questions, and it is also fairly clear what kind of empirical evidence would be relevant to deciding them. Alternative positions can be formulated, but for the present any one that is adopted must be extremely tentative.” (Pg. 159)

He concludes, “I shall simply point out that the syntactic and semantic structure of natural languages evidently offers many mysteries, both of fact and of principle, and that any attempt to delimit the boundaries of these domains must certainly be quite tentative.” (Pg. 163) He ends the book with the statement, “the questions we have touched on here have not yet been illuminated in any serious way by approaching them within the framework of any explicit grammatical theory. For the present, one can barely go beyond mere taxonomic arrangement of data. Whether these limitations are intrinsic, or whether a deeper analysis can succeed in unraveling some of these difficulties, remains an open question.” (Pg. 192)

This is a very complex book---and Chomsky has modified some of his ideas since it was written---but one that will be “must reading” for anyone studying linguistic theory.
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